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MedenoSrce - Farmakologija zdravil, ki delujejo na gladko mišico

Farmakologija zdravil, ki delujejo na gladko mišico

Datoteke:
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Snemi datoteko (gladka_misica_2006.doc)gladka_misica_2006.doc518 kB
Uvod

Ločimo tri tipe mišičnine: skeletna, srčna in gladka. Nekaj osnovnih razlik je podanih v tabeli 1. Naš seminar se bo podrobno ukvarjal z gladko mišico.
Gladka mišična celica je vretenaste oblike s centralno ležečim jedrom. Debeli in tanki filamenti iz aktina in miozina niso urejeni v miofibrile, ampak poševno glede na vzdolžno os celice. Intermediarni filamenti v žilni gladki mišici so vimentinski, v nežilni pa dezminski.
Ločimo dva tipa gladke mišice:
večenotni: vsaka mišična celica je posebej oživčena  tonična kontrakcija, npr. žilje;
enotni: oživčene so samo nekatere celice, živčni impulzi med celicami se prenašajo po presledkovnih stikih  fazična kontrakcija, npr. ureter, peristaltika.
Kontrakcija gladke mišice poteka tako, da se sproščen Ca2+ iz kaveol veže na kalmodulin, kar povzroči spremembo njegove konformacije. Kompleks Ca2+-kalmodulin aktivira miozinsko lahkoverižno kinazo. Ta fosforilira eno od lahkih verig miozina. Tako je omogočena povezava med aktinom in miozinom. Rezultat tega je kontrakcija.